Wet processing in textile

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Definition of Wet Processing

Wet processing in textile. Textile products use a variety of chemicals that are used in all tasks such as de-sizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing and finishing, etc., and for which the textile product is moistened with water. This is why it is called textile chemistry or wet processing.

The word wet means wet and the word process means to process or method. Wet process means wet process i.e. processing of textile products in wet condition with the help of water. Gray cloth originally obtained from loom or loom is converted into usable finished cloth through various processes to make it usable. In these various processes, textile products are treated with the help of various chemicals in the presence of water. And the role of water is most important to complete these processes smoothly. Its wet processing method is done based on the needs of the people and the purpose of using the cloth. However, the accuracy of a process depends in most cases on the resolution of its previous process.

Wet processing in textile. Thus it is understood that every process is very important which must be done with utmost efficiency and care. For example, if the desizing process is not done properly, the subsequent squaring and bleaching process will also suffer greatly. Fabrics before finishing can usually be Gray, Bleached, Dyed, Printed, or Dyed & Printed. Textile wet processing is usually done through various chemical reactions. Where cellulose or protein reacts with a variety of dyes and chemicals. This reaction is done in one step at a time such as desizing, scouring, bleaching, etc. However, the known conditions of its equilibrium in the actions of each step are influenced by the characteristics of the chemical reaction, the discipline of the broad action, the thermal dynamics, and the rate of reaction. Insightful engineers must have a clear idea of ​​this, but there are certain temperatures, times, and levels of chemicals for the process that must be properly complied with.

Types of Wet Processing:

 Wet processing processes can be divided into three main parts in short form. E.g.

1. Pretreatment

2. Dyeing and Printing

3. Finishing

1. Pretreatment:

Pretreatment means the process of preparation. In textile wet processing or chemical factories, the process before the application of dyes to fabrics, yarns, or fibers is considered pretreatment. The process of sizing, desizing, scouring bleaching, etc. is considered under pretreatment. All these processes involve the use of chemicals such as acids, alkalis, salts, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, enzymes, wetting agents, and other essential chemicals. The application rate, temperature, time, etc. of all these chemicals used in the wet process are efficiently and seriously determined based on the installed machines. Steps are taken to ensure the production of quality products at a low cost as per the market demand.

Dyeing Machine

2. Dyeing and Printing

(A) Dyeing:

Wet processing in textile. Dyeing is the process of boiling dyes in fibers, yarns, or fabrics with the help of water, chemicals, and other auxiliary substances by penetrating evenly everywhere. The substance by which the paint is boiled is called Dye Stuff. Depending on the practical field of yarn and cloth, the nature of their fiberDye stuff has to be selected and applied based on Hue, Tone, Brilliancy, Fastness, Affinity, Solubility, other properties, etc. according to the color of the dyestuff. Dyestuff is a substance that contains the Chromospheres Auxochrome group. The following dyestuffs are available in the market.

1. Direct Dyes, are used in cotton and viscose.

2. Basic Dyes, are used in jute and acrylic.

3. Acid Dyes, are used in wool, silk, and nylon.

4. Sulfur Dyes, Used in cotton, viscose.

5. Reactive Dyes, Used in cotton, wool, silk, viscose, and nylon.

6. Vat Dyes, Cotton, viscose, silk, and wool are used.

7. Azoic Dyes, are used in cotton.

8. Disperse Dyes, Used in Nylon, Polyester, and AcrylicFiber.

(B) Printing:

The process of printing the fabric according to the specific place of the fabric and the specific design is called printing. Printing is usually done with dyes, chemicals, and glue. The printing can be made in different ways. This method is called Style of Printing. E.g.

A. Direct Style

B. Resist Style

C. Dyed Style

D. Discharge style

3. Finishing:

After bleaching, dyeing, and printing, the fabric is finished. The finishing process usually depends on the type of fabric market demand. The purpose of finishing is to enhance the beauty of the fabric and make it usable. The finishing process is also determined by the purpose for which the fabric will be used. Usually, the fabric is finished in two parts. E.g.

(A) Mechanical finishing

(B) Chemical finishing

Examples of mechanical finishing such as calendaring, sulfurizing, embossing, etc. Again mercerizing, waterproofing, fireproofing, etc. are examples of chemical finishing. Many times the fabric can be both types of finishing.

Importance of Textile Wet Processing:

The main purpose of wet processing is to turn the gray cloth obtained from the loom into finished cloth. And for this the beauty of the cloth is developed, the use of the cloth becomes useful and the cloth is also prepared for special kinds of work. In fact, the wet processing process is a combination of many processes, through which the fabric is quality and attractive according to the needs of the people and the market. The processes include desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing, etc. If one of these processes is not completed properly, the subsequent processes are severely disrupted. As a result, quality finished fabrics are not available. As a result, the company’s reputation is tarnished and Lexan has to face it. To survive in this competitive market, there is no alternative to making high-quality fabrics at a low cost. So every step of wet processing must be done with utmost care and efficiency. Moreover, the water used in wet processing must be mild and careful in the selection and use of chemicals. The raw materials of the garment industry are supplied from this industry, which earns a lot of foreign exchange by exporting. So the importance of wet processing is immense.

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