Table of Contents
Source of water for the textile industry. Water is a compound substance. Water is the most important of the compounds. Water is the most abundant substance in nature. About 75% of the earth’s surface is water. In nature, water is found in three forms, solid, liquid, and gaseous. Water is called a total solvent because of its incomparable ability to dissolve other substances. And for this reason, water never stays in a pure state in the process. The water of this world is more or less mixed with various substances due to the extraordinary solubility of water. However, the purity of water largely depends on the place of origin. Rainwater is the purest of the natural waters. But it is not always available and cannot be saved.
Pure water is usually a clear, tasteless, and odorless substance. Water is a compound of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. 2H2 + 02 = 2H2O. When water is cooled, it turns to ice at a temperature of zero degrees centigrade (0 ° C). When heated again, it evaporates at a temperature of one hundred degrees centigrade (100 ° C). The density of water is highest at a temperature of four degrees Celsius (4 C). The importance of water in the textile industry is immense. Any wet processing requires a lot of water. But since natural water contains a variety of waste and metallic salts, it cannot be used directly in wet processing. Therefore, before using water in any wet processing, it needs to be purified and softened.
Types of Water: Water can be classified from different angles. Some of them are worth mentioning
(A) Water can be divided into four categories based on the source or place of origin. E.g.
2. River water
4. The fountain& tube-well water
1. Source of water for textile industry-Rainwater:
Rainwater is the purest of natural water. A very small amount of contaminants are dissolved in this water. If it was possible to collect this water, it would be the best water for textile wet processing.
2. Source of water for textile industry-River water:
This water is found in rivers, canals, and ponds. In this water, organic and inorganic substances are dissolved, but also insoluble or floating substances are present. This water is not suitable for textile wet processing.
This water contains the highest amount of metallic salt. 3.6% by weight and 2.6% by sodium chloride. Like river water, this water contains a lot of impurities, and chloride, sulfate, carbonate, etc. are dissolved. This water is completely unsuitable for textile wet assessment.
4. The fountain& tube-well water:
Tube well water and rainwater are deposited in the ground through various porous solid matter layers of the soil. This water dissolves salts in the soil such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, etc., and hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other gases. It is also called mineral water as mineral salts are dissolved in this water. Sulfur water is fountain water in which sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, and other compounds of sulfur are dissolved. This water is especially useful for skin diseases. The fountain water in which ferrous bicarbonate is dissolved is called chalibit water. Chalibit water is used as a tonic for physical weakness.
(B) Water can be divided into two categories based on the number of dissolved contaminants. E.g.
2. Mineral water
Water that contains a very small amount of contaminants is called clear or freshwater.
2. Mineral water:
Most of the fountain water contains a lot of salt and gaseous substances, so this water has a special taste or quality. Such fountain water is called mineral water.
(C) Water can be divided into two parts according to the suitability of the drink. E.g.
2. Non Potable water
1. Potable water:
Water that is colorless, clear, and free of germicides and in which a little metallic salt is dissolved so that the taste of the water is satisfactory is called potable water.
2. Non Potable water:
Water that contains excessive amounts of metallic salts and other harmful contaminants, which makes the water taste and pollute, is called nonpotable water.
(D) Water can be divided into two parts depending on the reaction with the soap. E.g.
1. Soft water
2. Hard water
1. Soft water: The water that easily foams with soap is called soft water. Namely- rainwater, fallen water.
2. Hard water: Water that does not foam easily with soap, but produces foam after consuming enough soap is called hard water. Such as seawater, river water, spring water, etc.