Today I will describe to you about Problems of Hard Water in wet Processing.
1. Scale formation in the boiler:
If hard water is used in the boiler, a scale or stain falls on its inner side due to which the boiler takes more heat. Excess fuel is consumed and it suffers rapid loss as a result of excess heat application. Temporary hardening in the boiler produces calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and they combine to form a scale on the boiler.
2. Reaction with soap or detergent:
Soap is the sodium or potassium salt of organic acid, which is calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, or calcium chloride in permanent hard water. Reacts with magnesium chloride to form insoluble soaps. As a result, soap is wasted as soap foam is not produced.
3. During scouring insoluble compounds accumulate on the fabric:
The soluble compounds that react with soap or detergent scabs accumulate on the fabric during scouring, which is difficult to remove and this insoluble compound makes the fabric stiff and rigid which is a problem later on Creates.
4. Reaction with dyestuff:
Problems of Hard Water in wet Processing. Dyestuff reacts with salt dissolved in hard water, resulting in some dyestuff being deposited as sediment, resulting in wastage of dyestuff and increased cost. Besides, if you dye in hard water, the dye on the cloth will not be correct and an uneven shade will be created.
5. Reduces the thermal conductivity of the boiler:
When hard water is used, solid insoluble metal salt layers or stains appear on the boilers of industrial plants. Due to the low thermal conductivity of this layer, thermal energy is wasted. In addition, as soon as the outer layer of the boiler expands due to excessive heat application, the inner layer cannot expand as much as the salt layer. As a result, the normal operation and durability of the boiler are reduced. Even this uneven expansion can cause the boiler to explode.
6. Red spots on clothes:
If ferrous bicarbonate is present in hard water, it reacts with soap to form adhesive and brown ferric hydroxide. The brown precipitate in the adhesive of ferric hydroxide is deposited in the yarn of the fabric, i.e. in the fiber, causing reddish spots on the fabric and damage to the fabric.
7. Formation of brown spots:
The use of hard water in the paper, artificial silk, and dyeing industries cause a kind of brown spots, especially for iron.
Water Quality for Wet Processing Industry:
Water used in Wet Processing should have the following qualities
1. The water used for textile wet processing should be soft.
2. The water should be free of bicarbonates of metals like Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), etc., and sulfates and chlorides of metals like Calcium, Magnesium, and Aluminum.
3. Water must be free of dissolved organic matter.
4. Water must be free of insoluble or floating substances.
5. Water must be free of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other dissolved gases.
6. Water should be free of ammonia and ammonia compounds.
7. At normal temperatures, water is a pure, colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid.
8. Water will have properties that turn into ice at zero degrees centigrade (0 ° c) and vapor at one hundred degrees centigrade (100 ° c). The highest concentration of pure water is at four degrees Celsius (4 ° C). Maintaining the quality mentioned in the water is very helpful for textile wet processing as it completes every step of the wet processing process on the one hand and saves chemicals, time, and labor on the other.