Mercerized cotton in the textile:
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John Mercer, born in Great Harwood, near Blackburn, England, invented the method in 1844. This method is named after him all over the world. Later, in 1895, the cotton yarn or cloth was used in this method in a thick caustic soda solution, which greatly increased its Luster, Tensile Strength, and Absorbency. This is a physio-chemical method. This mercerizing changes the physical and chemical properties of cotton fiber. This method is usually applied in bleached conditions on cotton yarn and cloth. This method is referred to as the finishing method, although it is done before printing. https://bdfabric.com/calendering-process-in-textile/
In this method, cotton yarn or cloth is usually processed at room temperature in a caustic soda solution with a concentration of 55°C to 75°CTowadel (Tw). Mercerizing is an important issue in the textile wet process. This method is especially important for increasing the printing quality of cotton fabrics. In addition, in the case of bleached finish products, Mercerizing method is given special importance as a finishing method.
Mercerized cotton in the textile-Definition:
The process by which cotton yarn or fabric is treated at room temperature (18°C) by 55°C to 75°Ctowadel (Tw) density with caustic soda, which enhances the luster, brightness, strength, color absorption, etc., is called mercerizing.
Mercerized cotton in the textile-Objects of mercerizing:
Mercerizing is done on cotton yarn or cloth to achieve the following purposes.
1. Increase the luster.
2. Increase tensile strength.
3. Increase color absorption.
4. Increase the strength of wear resistance.
5. To increase the light resistance power in the area.
6. Increase excess moisture capacity.
7. Increasing chemical reactivity at low temperatures.
8. Improving the smoothness of the fabric.
The necessity of Mercerizing:
Mercerizing is a very important process in textile wet processing. This process increases the strength of cotton yarn and cloth by 20 to 30 percent. When the cotton fiber is dipped in the caustic soda solution, it swells to a cylindrical shape and the flattened shape of the fiber becomes very round. In addition, the lumen of the fiber narrows, and the thickness of its cell wall increases, resulting in increased strength. In this process, the surface of the fiber is more smooth and evenly reflected, so that the brightness of the yarn or cloth is increased. As a result of this action, all the components of the fiber become swollen, and its absorption capacity increases.
Therefore, when dyeing or printing mercerized fabric, its dyeing and printing are done equally and the flexibility of the fabric is also increased. Mercerizing causes the yarn to swell and thicken the fabric. Generally suitable for mercerizing of lesser twisted yarns. Mercerizing more twisted yarn is not good. This is because caustic soda does not penetrate the fiber well. Fabrics made from combed yarn are more suitable for mercerizing. Mercerized fabrics are at the forefront of quality and excellence. Thus, it is evident from the above discussion that the importance of mercerizing process is immense for enhancing the various qualities and excellence of the use of cotton fabric.